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Posts Tagged ‘United States Education Program’

Frank Schulenburg named executive director of Wiki Education Foundation

The Wikimedia Foundation and the Wiki Education Foundation released a joint announcement today with the news that Frank Schulenburg was named the first executive director of the Wiki Education Foundation. Frank, formerly the senior director of programs at the Wikimedia Foundation, will begin this role next week.

More information about the announcement of Frank’s move can be found in this Q&A document.

The Wiki Education Foundation is a new organization that supports professors and institutions in the United States and Canada as they participate in the Wikipedia Education Program.

Carlos Monterrey, Communications Associate for the Wikimedia Foundation

Louisiana State University faculty member supports student Wikipedia editing

If you teach in the science department at Louisiana State University and want to incorporate a Wikipedia assignment into your classroom, Becky Carmichael is the person to meet. She began volunteering as a Wikipedia Ambassador in the Wikipedia Education Program in the United States in 2011, during her graduate studies and work as a teaching assistant for a Conservation Biology course. Since she had taught the class many times and was familiar with the content, she said it was a great way to focus on “the nuances of Wikipedia.” Then Becky became the Science Coordinator with Communication across the Curriculum, a Louisiana State University program that helps undergraduates improve their writing and technological communication skills. She already understood the basics of editing Wikipedia and how to incorporate it into a classroom assignment, and now she could reach instructors in other areas of science.

To date, Becky has helped 13 classes use Wikipedia as a teaching tool. With so much experience as a Wikipedia Ambassador, she has developed her own training routine and learned the importance of communicating these assignments’ potential impact.

“For students, I like to introduce Wikipedia with a pre-workshop homework set,” she says. “The homework is very similar to the Wikipedia Ambassador training I received in 2010, with the addition of the online “training for students” — a truly valuable resource! During the workshop, we can get into details about what Wikipedia is, the importance of sharing information, and what they will gain from the experience. I emphasize that as members of the university, we have access to a wealth of information and resources the general public may not. We can give our research and exploration of a topic purpose by sharing with others.”

When instructors work with Becky to develop Wikipedia assignments, they get advice from someone who teaches with Wikipedia herself.

“I teach an honors-level course for non-science majors, Natural Disturbances and Society,” Becky says. “This is a course I developed to examine how natural disturbances (e.g., fires, hurricanes, invasive species) influence our lives and how society can influence disturbance events. My class is currently proposing creation of articles or the significant contribution to existing pages related to the course. It’s a great class, which encourages science literacy and exploration, with interesting connections to society, which may currently not be included in some disturbance or disaster articles.”

In Becky’s experience, in the beginning of the term, “students are initially uncomfortable with contributing to Wikipedia. They think it will break and become intimidated because of the global visibility. And who wouldn’t be nervous? Their work is going to be read by potentially millions of people, not just their instructor. I tackle this by having the students provide each other feedback on drafts in their sandboxes first. It is still intimidating to let classmates review their work, but I found that the students really put forth even better initial drafts. They also help each other learn better communication skills, sharing editing tricks and grammatical advice. It’s amazing how much the quality of contributions improved. The feedback exercise was also one of the aspects students really found useful stating they appreciated learning how to clarify and strengthen their writing.”

One of the great things about partnering with a university professional is that her Wikipedia Ambassador responsibilities fit so neatly into her job description.

“My focus as the Science Coordinator is to aid undergraduates in effectively disseminating scientific information through writing, speaking, visual, and technological means. Additionally, I assist faculty in course and assignment design that improves communication and critical analysis skills. Wikipedia can be the perfect way to achieve both of these skill sets because it is a cooperative writing process based in technology,” Becky says.

Her work as a Wikipedia Ambassador advances her mission within her career, and her role at the university gives her a great opportunity to influence students. By providing “one-on-one assistance to both faculty and students learning how to edit and navigate the site,” Becky makes sure assignments will not only achieve important learning objectives but also will positively impact Wikipedia.

As Becky has become a campus expert in teaching with Wikipedia, she has welcomed the opportunity to reach course goals creatively.

“I enjoy brainstorming ways to approach an assignment, make connections to real-world applications, and methods to excite the students,” Becky says. “I am passionate about improving science literacy and can truly ‘geek out’ over science topics. I like that Wikipedia represents sharing of knowledge and the increase of literacy in many topics in a friendly environment. The community involvement can be impactful on both student learning as well as inspiration for continual discovery.”

Jami Mathewson
Program Manager, Wiki Education Foundation

Student editors in the US and Canada add more content than ever in fall 2013

In the seven terms of the Wikipedia Education Program in the United States and Canada, students have added 55 million bytes of content to the English Wikipedia, much of it high quality.

The Wikipedia Education Program in the United States and Canada recently wrapped up its seventh term. The program, where students edit Wikipedia as a part of their coursework, began in the fall 2010 term in the U.S. and expanded to Canada in fall 2011. In 3.5 years, student editors have added 55 million bytes to English Wikipedia. For some perspective, that’s about 36,000 printed pages, 73 reams of paper, or 12.1 million words. That means these students have added enough words to Wikipedia to fill ⅓ of the Encyclopædia Britannica.

Last term alone, 1,347 students added 11.6 million bytes and 251 new articles, though the vast majority expanded existing stubs and articles.

Though quantity may not determine impact on Wikipedia on its own, the two qualitative research projects we’ve completed reveal the trend that contributions from student editors are generally a net positive to the encyclopedia. These numbers don’t show other ways the Wikipedia Education Program has a positive impact on Wikipedia, however. Following the trend of students in higher education in the United States, more than 60% of students editing through the Wikipedia Education Program in the United States and Canada are women, helping to address the gender content gap on Wikipedia. Women create content on a diverse spectrum of topics. For example, Tamar Carroll’s women’s history class at the Rochester Institute of Technology, new to the Wikipedia Education Program last term, created and expanded articles about artists, educators, and other notable women—enabling the students to learn about their course’s subject matter while expanding the breadth of coverage on Wikipedia about women’s history. By expanding the program to more classes like this, we have a huge opportunity to bring more content from women onto Wikipedia.

To get an idea of the amazing contributions students are able to make as new users, you can view the activity feed of individual classes, which include all edits from students in that class. For example, here are the edits that Andrew Stuhl’s ecology students at Bucknell University are making this term. As of now, in the beginning of the term, you can see most edits are from students who are completing the online orientation for students. As the project progresses, they may add new sections, expand the references, or add an image—all of which will update on the activity feed. By monitoring these edits, professors and volunteers alike can provide proactive feedback while the student is still editing so as to prevent these new users from straying from course and Wikipedia objectives.

To see some examples of student work from past terms, check out our trophy case of articles that students have created or expanded significantly over the last few years. These are just some of the articles that students have impacted as participants in the Wikipedia Education Program. Hopefully we will continue expanding that list for many years to come.

Jami Mathewson
Program Manager, Wiki Education Foundation

Why the student learning aspect matters in the Wikipedia Education Program

Editor’s note: The following is an op-ed, meaning the views expressed herein are the personal views of the author.

Jami Mathewson

I’ve been working with the Wikipedia Education Program in the United States and Canada for almost two years. In the program, university professors assign their students to edit Wikipedia as a part of the coursework. Typically, professors do away with a traditional research paper and instead train students to complete the same research and summarize it into a Wikipedia article.

If you’re unfamiliar with the concept of using Wikipedia in the classroom, your first thought may be that this is a great way to “legitimize” Wikipedia and bring “good writers and researchers” into the project as editors. I hear this all the time. But Wikipedia doesn’t need help being legitimized, which I explain to newcomers fairly often. And I find that students, for the most part, are not good writers and researchers; I think most professors would likely agree. In a more perfect world, our high school students would graduate with a solid understanding of academic scholarship, and of how to find it, reproduce it, and cite it. As of now, this is a skill many students don’t pick up until graduate school.

But in our world of information—where so much is accessible at the click of a button, in the palm of our hand, in an instant—these research skills are more important than ever. We need to teach our students how to read a news source, assess its origin, and analyze its reliability. We need to teach our students when they should take something with a grain of salt, even when—or especially when—it’s on the internet.

This is what the Wikipedia Education Program offers its participants every term. Student editors learn how to consume information by producing it. Rather than use Wikipedia solely as a reference point, they engage in a participatory assignment and learn the intricacies of knowledge dissemination. With 500 million people accessing Wikipedia every month, it is important to determine what they are accessing Who decides what is important enough to make it into an article? What scholarship is referenced, and what newspapers are cited?

We’ve already done two research projects and the results prove that student editors are not only capable of improving the quality of Wikipedia articles, they actually do so almost 9 out of 10 times. This isn’t shocking to me. The students are working toward getting a good grade; they have access to reliable sources through their university libraries; and their professors can identify gaps in the scholarship on Wikipedia through their own expertise, even if they don’t take the time to edit themselves.

While we’ve shown that these contributions to Wikipedia articles are significant, I don’t think that is the only reason the Wikipedia Education Program has the potential to be so world-changing. The ideal outcome I see for the program is this: Student editors have a positive learning experience and, in the meantime, they improve the quality of Wikipedia. Perhaps the student editor makes a minor textual contribution but improves her understanding of how to cite research from a peer-reviewed journal. Perhaps the entire class edits “only” two articles, but they achieve Good Article status and learn about information literacy and critical thinking. Or maybe a student editor significantly edits just one article, learning how to evaluate and expand a topic’s coverage, and that improved article on, for example, infant mortality reaches at least 20,000 viewers every month.

Famously, Jimmy Wales asked us to “imagine a world in which every single person on the planet is given free access to the sum of all human knowledge.” I believe that the sum of all human knowledge is not limited to a compilation of events, biographies, theories, etc. Isn’t information literacy a part of that knowledge? What about writing skills and research skills? The ability to work collaboratively, to compromise, to remain open-minded to changing your opinion as you widen your perspective? I believe our community of editors is learning these skills, and it’s important to share this with as much of the world as possible.

The quantitative and qualitative impacts to Wikipedia are not the only impacts when a student edits Wikipedia. I hope we can establish some reliable, realistic metrics to assess the student learning outcomes within the program, so we can evaluate our efficacy through this lens. I look forward to seeing the use of Wikipedia in the classroom grow to give even more people the opportunity to gain so much from editing Wikipedia.

Jami Mathewson
Wikipedia Education Program, United States and Canada

US, Canada students contribute massive amount of quality content to Wikipedia

43.4 million bytes. That’s how much content students from the Wikipedia Education Program in the United States and Canada have contributed to the English Wikipedia in the three years of the program’s existence.

What does 43.4 million bytes look like? It’s approximately 29,000 printed pages, 58 reams of paper, 9.6 million words — or the equivalent of 17 full copies of War and Peace.

Wikipedia Ambassadors provide in-person and online support for students and professors who incorporate Wikipedia assignments.

The Wikipedia Education Program started as a small pilot in fall 2010, with about 200 students who contributed content to Wikipedia in place of a traditional research or term paper in one of their university classes. Professors found students were more engaged with the Wikipedia assignment, and students found they worked harder, learned great research and writing skills, and were proud to show off Wikipedia articles they’d written to family and friends. Volunteer Wikipedia Ambassadors helped students learn the basics of how to edit Wikipedia.

In three years, the program has grown dramatically. Now, more than 1,200 students in the U.S. and Canada participate in the program each term. Classroom-based activities are taking off globally, with efforts led by Wikimedia chapters, individual professors, and dedicated volunteers underway in more than 50 countries worldwide.

The U.S. and Canada programs are still going strong, with more than 70 courses incorporating Wikipedia contributions as part of the coursework in the spring 2013 term. Even more professors are expected to use Wikipedia assignments in the fall 2013 term.

The potential for future development is high; dedicated volunteers from the U.S. and Canada program have recently created a new nonprofit, called the Wiki Education Foundation, which will work to coordinate, improve, and increase Wikipedia’s use as a teaching tool in higher education. The volunteers running this organization care deeply about both the qualitative impact on Wikipedia as well as the learning experience student editors have during their assignments.

Student work from the Wikipedia Education Program in the United States and Canada is having a major impact on the English Wikipedia. Research shows the students are adding high-quality content. Some students’ articles get hundreds of thousands of page views, and the sheer amount of knowledge students have added to Wikipedia articles over the last three years is astonishing. After all, 17 War and Peace’s worth is a lot of knowledge.

LiAnna Davis
Wikipedia Education Program Communications Manager

Students learn about history as a living, changing thing

One of my favorite responsibilities at Brooklyn College is teaching a two-term course surveying Western theater history (ancient Greece to the present) for aspiring artists and arts administrators. In many ways, this course is a hard sell. Inevitably, a few students believe that this course will not be “useful” to them as actors, directors, designers, dramaturgs, or managers. So, I constantly ask myself, “How can I get my students to feel personally invested in this subject?”

Professor Amy E. Hughes

As an experiment, I recently piloted a Wikipedia-based assignment in my graduate-level theater history course. It was a small pilot, involving five students who created or revised a Wikipedia article related to theater history. I thought they would find this digital project more interesting and practical than a research paper (the customary assignment in my course), and that they might appreciate the opportunity to add to the world’s sum of free knowledge by contributing to Wikipedia.

First, the students learned the mechanics of wiki-editing and the cultural and editorial conventions of Wikipedia. Then, they conducted research—consulting at least ten secondary sources—and sought peer reviews of their written work from online editors as well as their classmates. At the end of the semester, each submitted an e-portfolio documenting his or her work, including a short paper reflecting on the experience overall.

My students discovered that many theater-related Wikipedia articles are far from complete (and sometimes inaccurate) and learned what they could do to change that. They also testified that they appreciated interacting with members of the Wikipedia community. In most classrooms, students only get feedback from the instructor; if they are really lucky, they might also receive comments on their work from a classmate. In contrast, students engaged in a Wikipedia assignment have access to a host of readers, ranging from Online Ambassadors attached to the course (in our case, the amazing Yunshui) to random, anonymous individuals. As the instructor, I, too, felt supported by the concentric circles of community that make Wikipedia the unique resource that it is.

Perhaps most importantly, my students learned a crucial lesson: theater history—indeed, all history—is a living, changing thing. I always push my students to read textbooks and scholarship with a critical eye, because what we tend to call “history” is really historiography—stories about the past written by people. Peer-review processes at publishing houses ensure that the books we read are accurate, well researched, and authoritative; but even the most respected and skilled scholars can get the story wrong. Other scholars must come along, armed with newly discovered insights or evidence, to revise these histories. On Wikipedia, the challenges involved in writing history are fully visible. My students learned that resources like Wikipedia are only as good as the careful, thoughtful contributions that people choose to make.

Amy E. Hughes, Assistant Professor of Theater History and Criticism, Brooklyn College (CUNY)

Communications students at Schreiner University reflect on their Wikipedia assignment

Professor Mary Grace Antony

Students at Schreiner University enrolled in their Spring 2013 New Media Technology and Communication course to find that Professor Mary Grace Antony wanted them to expand Wikipedia articles. Antony found out about the Wikipedia Education Program through the National Communication Association Wikipedia Initiative.

“It seemed like the perfect fit for a course that examined technology and its impact on communication, while providing my students with a firsthand immersive experience with an online collaborative and research-oriented organization,” she says. Her colleagues have been enthusiastic about the project, and one reference librarian, Connor Baldwin, is now training as a Wikipedia Ambassador after supervising this assignment so he can best support others at Schreiner.

In the beginning of the semester, all students completed the training for students as an introduction to editing basics and norms, article selection, and referencing guidelines.

Dan Simanek, our Campus Ambassador, provided an initial orientation, and even presented a Skype guest lecture where he reviewed the stub extension process and took questions from the class,” Mary Grace says. “User:Theopolisme, our Online Ambassador, provided invaluable feedback and real-time assistance whenever the students hit a roadbump. His patience was truly commendable.”

Students enjoyed the assignment, according to feedback they provided at the end of the term.

“I like how this project is virtually a group effort, and how others can jump in with their ideas,” said one of her students, User:Marshall90. “It challenged me to do something I would have never considered doing, yet it gave me the opportunity to share my work with others.”

The great thing about programs and projects like the Education Program is that new editors, who may not edit in the long-term, can still add great content and learn along the way. But it’s not just Wikipedia who benefits: students do, too.

“It is far more practical and immediately beneficial than a traditional class assignment,” Mary Grace says. “Developing a stub into a full-fledged article required focus, attention to detail, and good research and writing skills. The results were instantaneous and tangible, and this gave the students a more fulfilling and satisfying learning experience. Several of them appreciated writing for a global audience, rather than just the course professor.”

Even with all of these learning benefits, Antony’s favorite part of the assignment was her “students’ evolving and burgeoning pride in their work.”

“This has been one of my favorite assignments while at Schreiner,” said User:Saviands, one of her students. “I intend to keep up with the page and see what changes and edits are made.” Antony says she “can’t wait to do it again.”

Jami Mathewson, Wikipedia Education Program, United States and Canada

Rice University students take multiple classes with a Wikipedia-editing assignment

Nadhika Ramachandran

At Rice University, students pursuing a minor in Poverty, Justice, and Human Capabilities (PJHC) must complete two core courses addressing poverty, justice, and human development. Since Spring 2010, Professor Diana Strassmann has given students in her courses the same final assignment: to create or expand Wikipedia articles about poverty and about the links between gender equality and economic development in various regions of the world. She has also trained the other professors who teach the minor’s core courses so that they can include the Wikipedia assignment.

Nadhika Ramachandran, a rising senior studying political science and international relations in addition to the PJHC minor, signed on for the first of the two core courses in Spring 2012 and learned that she would be editing Wikipedia. Nadhika was both excited and nervous.

“So many people turn to Wikipedia for information that you know your contribution can have a real impact in terms of how people view a certain subject,” she says. “Of course, that also made me a bit nervous because if I did not include certain information or an important viewpoint I would misinform people.”

For that term’s class, she significantly expanded the peacebuilding article, which introduced her to Wikipedia editing. Since Professor Strassmann has set this assignment up for both of the two core courses in the minor, Nadhika enrolled in the second class a year later. In that class, Nadhika created the Women in the Arab Spring article because she “felt it was an important issue that had no coverage” on English Wikipedia. The article explores women’s involvement in the political protests and demonstrations, including their role online.

“I love knowing that my work will educate people all over the world about an important but often-ignored topic,” Nadhika says. “The Arab world has a reputation of treating women as second-class citizens in areas like political participation, economic independence, personal freedoms, and general social status. When the Arab Spring first began, it seemed like a unique opportunity to boost the status of women in the Arab world. The protesters were pushing for democracy, increased political participation, respect for human rights, and better economic opportunities, all of which would improve the status of women. Additionally, women actually participated in the revolution as street protestors and in some countries, as leaders. However, as the new governments formed and Islamist parties won elections in most places people began to fear that they would actually curtail women’s rights. The impact of the Arab Spring remains to be seen.”

Nadhika’s class was supported by Wikipedia Ambassadors, who helped her and her classmates learn how to edit Wikipedia. The students received in-person support from university staff member Christine Cox as well as Virginia White and Joyce Chou, students who had taken the class in previous semesters. They could also seek assistance from long-time Wikipedia editors Mike Christie, Justin Knapp, and Pat Earley.

“The dedication of the other editors in the community reinforced the impact of our work and their support made me feel more comfortable when editing,” Nadhika said. After spending a few days responding to those editors’ constructive feedback, she submitted the new article to appear on the main page of Wikipedia as a Did You Know, and it appeared on March 25, with more than 1,500 views. Soon after creating the article, she was already able to achieve her goal of sharing the fruits of her academic studies with more people.

Thanks to Professor Strassmann’s advocacy for Wikipedia assignments, many students at Rice are editing Wikipedia during multiple terms. The students don’t necessarily edit in between assignments, but they’re returning to Wikipedia with a stronger editing background and familiarity with norms, so they have more time and energy to create even better content. Even though Nadhika has completed her class assignment, she plans to expand the section about the aftermath of the Arab Spring protests once her schedule clears at the end of the term.

Jami Mathewson
Wikipedia Education Program United States and Canada Associate

Online training for newcomers

In-person trainings are effective — but they do not scale.

Getting newcomers started effectively on Wikipedia is one of Wikimedia Foundation’s biggest challenges, and has been — in one way or another — the central focus of the Wikipedia Education Program. When we launched the Wikipedia Ambassador Program in 2010, it was all about in-person training: bringing together experienced Wikipedians and newcomers, and teaching the newcomers enough to find their own way on Wikipedia — and even teach others. To make the program scale, though, we knew we’d need more self-service training, something a professor or would-be Wikipedia Ambassador could do on their own time and at their own pace.

For English Wikipedia, we put together the first versions of the online trainings for professors and Wikipedia Ambassadors in mid-2012. Soon, we realized that a lot of what we’d developed for professors and Campus Ambassadors could also work well for students. So we took out the assignment design module, tweaked a little of the language, and voilà, the training for students was born!

A formal orientation program for students would be new territory, so we were anxious to see if students would find it useful — or have the patience for an hour-long training course. The training works well as a first assignment for a class in the Education Program, so we created a form at the end for students to show they completed it. The form also asks for feedback: what they liked and didn’t like, what was missing, and what was unnecessary.

Page views for the student training peak in mid-February, about a 4-6 weeks into the term for most classes.

Based on this early feedback along with a few live user tests, we could see that it might be usable, but there was plenty of room for improvment. So we iterated quickly to make the training more streamlined and to fix specific pain points as quickly as feedback came in. By the end of the year, we had fixed most of the simple issues, and most of the new feedback was positive.

2013 marked the first systematic use of our new structured course pages on English Wikipedia, and we built prominent links to the training into the couse pages students interact on, the reference materials we send to professors, and the information we provide to Wikipedia Ambassadors. One challenge with materials developed for the Education Program is that we essentially have two shots per year at making changes: immediately prior to the spring term and immediately prior to the fall term. And it looks like the changes we made at the end of 2012 to publicize the trainings more have really helped!

So far this term, we’ve had more than 375 users complete the training—compared to 42 last term. This level of feedback has given us the chance to focus on the little things that affect students’ overall experiences. For example, one recurring theme in the feedback has been the videos: students either really like them, or really don’t. The ones who don’t like watching videos, preferring to read through text at their own pace, didn’t like it when the videos went into more detail than the text. So we made the text parallel the videos more closely. Now users can choose whether to watch the videos, read the text, or both, and they get similar information either way.

These changes cycle back into the other trainings too, including both the educators and ambassadors training, and the short newcomers training that was spun off for a quick general intro for users who can’t be expected to do an hour-long training before they begin. Just since January, the training for students landing page has had more than 4,000 page views.

Next up: spreading it beyond English Wikipedia! Porting the training to Portuguese Wikipedia is already underway, with more languages to come.

Want to try the training yourself? The newcomers version takes about 20 minutes.

Sage Ross, Wikipedia Education Program Online Communications

Student assigned to read a Wikipedia article that she wrote

Every graduate student gets assigned a lot of reading, but not every graduate student gets assigned to read something they’ve written. That happened to Jacqueline McCrory in fall 2012, thanks to the Wikipedia Education Program.

As a master’s student in Environmental Management at the University of San Francisco and an employee at environmental consulting firm Analytical Environmental Services (AES), Jacqueline knew a lot about habitat conservation plans (HCPs) — but there wasn’t anything on the topic on Wikipedia. So when she enrolled in Professor Aaron Frank’s Environmental Law class in spring 2012 and discovered that Professor Frank assigned writing a Wikipedia article on a course-related topic, Jacqueline gravitated toward creating one.

Jacqueline McCrory

“I chose this topic because the existing article had very limited information and the concept is important for conservationists as well as environmental planners,” she explains. “The legal documents pertaining to HCPs can be extensive and somewhat convoluted to read through, so I wanted to create a source that would clearly provide the need-to-know information to interested readers.”

Jacqueline was excited by the prospect of writing something that would have a global audience, and further her study of the conservation of special status species. She had support from two veterans of Wikipedia assignments: Professor Frank has participated in the Wikipedia Education Program since its pilot in spring 2011, as has Campus Ambassador Derrick Coetzee. With their assistance, Jacqueline and a fellow classmate created the article on Habitat Conservation Plans.

Other professors at the University of San Francisco noticed that the article on such an important topic to their field of study had been created, although they didn’t realize it had been written by a student in their program. One such professor assigned the article as required reading for students in his fall 2012 Natural Resources Management course. Little did he know, the author of the article was taking his class that term.

“When I informed the instructor that I had actually written the article, he acknowledged the depth and quality of the article and invited me to prepare a guest lecture on the subject material for my own class,” she says.

Jacqueline didn’t just receive kudos for her Wikipedia article at her university: her supervisors at AES recognized her expertise in the subject, and gave her related assignments. She’s grateful for the opportunity that Professor Frank’s class gave her, as she says she would never have edited Wikipedia without that nudge. And she recognizes how beneficial Wikipedia assignments are to students.

“Most papers that we write for undergraduate and graduate level courses end up being read by the professor grading the assignment and remain in electronic folders to be deleted as trash at some point in the future; however, when published as Wikipedia articles, these academic papers can be viewed and used as resources and references for countless other people and may continue to serve a purpose,” Jacqueline says.

LiAnna Davis, Wikipedia Education Program Communications Manager